Professor Mykola Dolia: «The resource saving technology of growing crops is twice more effective than a traditional one»
We continue to present the achievements of our university scientists. Today we are speaking with dean of Faculty of Plant protection, bio technologies and ecology, doctor of agricultural sciences, professor Mykola Dolia. The solution of minimizing the expenses and maximizing the profit is organic farming. Due to the developed technology and the quality consulting the profitability of enterprises has increased as well as the quality and quantity of products and at the same time the damage to the environment has decreased.
– Mykola Mykolayovych, will you tell us about the no-till technology.
– This technology is about new mechanisms of bio incorporated new mechanisms of biological balance of agro cenosis. They preserve the ecology of a particular region and conduct effective management. The chemical contamination of soils and agricultural crops is almost absent. I will speak about seven principles of this technology.
The first is to follow the crop rotation in time and in space and to control pests. The second is to evaluate harmful and useful organisms in order to preserve biota of the soil, to protect it from human intrusion, chemical impact and to get the most effective conditions for a specific plant. The third is minimal and later no soil cultivation to preserve plant residues. Here all useful organisms are preserved and they control the number of phitophagans. The forth is to follow the rules of feeding the soil with green fertilizers. The fifth is to conduct quality measures to prevent pests from breeding. The sixth is to use agricultural machines which do five or six operations at a time. Here some biological methods are used, in particular trichogramma. Seeds are also processed with feeding mixtures. In my opinion modern and the most effective one is to use carbide-ammonia mixtures. These rules have quality and opportuneness. Scientists are constantly monitoring the situation and make decisions whether to take specific steps or not.
– Can you exemplify it?
– We established a research and educational centre at a Velykoobuhivske farm, Poltava region. There we implement this technology. What is the result? We have the following harvest – maize is 12-15 tons per ha, wheat is 8-10 tons per ha and soy is 4 tons per ha. The harvest is of high quality because it is not damaged. Southern regions use I-II class wheat. Poltava region has such a quality due to our technology. The maize harvest is as twice as high in Mensky district, Chernihiv region. They also implement our technology.
One of the advantages of this technology is resource saving. Fuel consumption is three times less, chemical is twice as less, not speaking about amortization. Farms which use this technology do not take on a loan, they just do not need it. Thus they have a larger profit. Another advantage is quality. The products are of high quality and safety.
– How can your department help the farmers?
– There are specialists and consultants among the teaching staff, postgraduates and students. They are able to monitor and to make decisions to modify the strategy and technology of crop growing. A highly competent specialist is of demand as they can estimate the phyto and sanitarian situation to examine the peculiarities of agro coenosis and to give the right piece of advice. At the same time this specialist should be flexible and be competent in many spheres.
– It is impossible for one person to deal with all aspects of a production process. So here a group of highly qualified team of single-discipline specialists should work. It refers to growing cereals, berries, fruit and crops. As each of these areas needs deep knowledge how to grow them.
– Are faculty graduates prepared to implement this technology?
– Our academic process aims to provide our students with deep knowledge and to cultivate their practical skills. To reach this goal there are created educational and research laboratories at farms. Our students can train their skills there while Master students have been studying this technology at a farm for many years. Professors together with students evaluate and improve this technology.
– How do businesmen accept the technology?
– Not always. I can give you one example. In the south of Ukraine two brothers are farmers. One of them utilises this technology while the other rejects it. The former has high profit and support the social life in the village, the latter is not able to do the same but still rejects innovations.
– How can people use the service of scientists and what is the price?
– After people contact us we sign a cooperation agreement. In terms of price everything depends on what crops are planned to be grown, what soil and what crop rotation is, what chemical were used, what kind of work will be done and on what area. The cheapest is one ha of sunflower and the most expensive is wheat.
I invite everyone and in particular press centre to visit of our farms and see how we carry out our developments.
– Thank you very much for this invitation, we will be glad to see your achievements.